Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Creating Editor Key Bindings in Delphi

There is a powerful but little known feature of the code editor in Delphi and that permits you to add your own custom keystrokes. This feature is referred to as custom key bindings and it is part of the Delphi open tools API (OTA). The open tools API provides you with a collection of classes and interfaces that you can use to write your own extensions to the IDE.
This article provides you with an overview of this interesting feature, and demonstrates a simple key binding class that you can use as a starting point for creating your own custom key bindings. This key binding makes a duplicate, or copy, of the current line in the code editor. If a block of text is selected, this key binding will duplicate that block. This is a feature that is found in other code editors, and now, through key bindings, you can have it in Delphi.

Overview of Key Bindings

A key binding is a unit that installed into a design-time package. Writing an editor key binding involves creating class type declarations and implementing interfaces. In fact, creating and installing an editor key binding involves a number of explicit steps. These are:
  1. Descend a new class from TNotifierObject. This class must be declared to implement the IOTAKeyboardBinding interface. This class is your key binding.
  2. In addition to the four methods of that IOTAKeyboardBinding interface that you must implement in your key binding class, add one additional method for each new feature that you want to add to the editor. This method is passed an object that implements the IOTAKeyContext interface. You use this object within your implementation to read information about, and control, the behavior of the editor.
  3. Declare and implement a standalone Register procedure. Within this procedure invoke the AddKeyboardBinding method of the BorlandIDEServices object, passing an instance of the class you declared in step 1 as the only argument.
  4. Add the unit that includes this Register procedure to a designtime only package.
  5. Add the designide.dcp package to this design time package's Requires clause. This package is located in lib folder under where you installed Delphi.
Each of these steps is discussed in the following sections. As mentioned earlier, these steps will define a new key binding that adds a single key combination. Once implemented and installed, this key combination will permit you to duplicate the current line in the editor by pressing Ctrl-Shift-D.
(The source code for this editor key binding project can be downloaded from Embarcadero Code Central at

Declaring the Key Binding Class

The class that defines your key binding must descend from TNotifierObject and implement the IOTAKeyboardBinding interface. If you are familiar with interfaces, you will recall that when a class is declared to implement an interface, it must declare and implement all of the methods of that interface. Consider for a moment the following declaration of the IOTAKeyboardBinding interface. This declaration appears in the ToolsAPI unit:
IOTAKeyboardBinding = interface(IOTANotifier)
 function GetBindingType: TBindingType;
 function GetDisplayName: String;
 function GetName: String;
 procedure BindKeyboard(const BindingServices:
 property BindingType: TBindingType read GetBindingType;
 property DisplayName: String read GetDisplayName;
 property Name: String read GetName;
As you can see, this interface declares four methods and three properties. Your key binding class must implement the methods. Note, however, that it does not need to implement the properties. (This is a regular source of confusion when it comes to interfaces, but the fact is that the properties belong to the interface, and are not required by the implementing object. Sure, you can implement the properties in the object. But you do not have to, and the properties were not implemented in this example.)
In addition to the methods of the IOTAKeyboardbinding interface, your key binding class must include one additional method for each custom feature that you want to add to the editor. In order to be compatible with the AddKeyBinding method used to bind these additional methods, these additional methods must be TKeyBindingProc type methods. The following is the declaration of the TKeyBindingProc method pointer type, as it appears in the ToolsAPI unit:
TKeyBindingProc = procedure (const Context: IOTAKeyContext;
  KeyCode: TShortcut; var BindingResult: TKeyBindingResult)
    of object;
All this type really means is that each of the additional methods that you write, each one of which adds a different keystroke to the editor, must take three parameters: an IATOKeyContext, a TShortcut, and a TKeyBindingResult.
The following is the key binding class declared in the DupLine.pas unit. This class, named TDupLineBinding, includes only one new key binding. The following is the class type declaration of this class:
  TDupLineBinding = class(TNotifierObject, IOTAKeyboardBinding)
    procedure DupLine(const Context: IOTAKeyContext;
      KeyCode: TShortCut;
      var BindingResult: TKeyBindingResult);
   { IOTAKeyboardBinding }
   function GetBindingType: TBindingType;
   function GetDisplayName: String;
    function GetName: String;
    procedure BindKeyboard(const BindingServices:

Implementing the IOTAKeyboardBindings Interface

Once you have declared your key binding class, you must implement the four methods of the IOTAKeyboardBinding interface, as well as each of your additional TKeyBindingProc methods. Fortunately, implementing the IOTAKeyboardBinding interface is easy.
You implement GetBindingType by returning the type of key binding that you are creating. There are only two types of key bindings: partial and complete. A complete key binding defines all of the keystrokes of the editor, and you identify your key binding as a complete key binding by returning the value btComplete. A complete key binding is actually a full key mapping.
A partial key binding is what you use to add one or more keystrokes to the key mapping that you are using. The TDupLineBinding class is a partial key binding. The following is the implementation of GetBindingType in the TDupLineBinding class:
function TDupLineBinding.GetBindingType: TBindingType;
  Result := btPartial;
You implement GetDisplayName and GetName to provide the editor with text descriptions of your key binding. GetDisplayName should return an informative name that Delphi will display in the Enhancement modules list of the Key Mappings page of the Editor Options node of the Options dialog box.
GetName, on the other hand, is a unique string that the editor uses internally to identify your key binding. Because this string must be unique for all key bindings that a user might install, by convention this name should be your company name or initials followed by the name of your key binding.
The following listing contains the implementation of the GetDisplayName and GetName methods for the TDupLineBinding class:
function TDupLineBinding.GetDisplayName: String;
  Result := 'Duplicate Line Binding';

function TDupLineBinding.GetName: String;
  Result := 'jdsi.dupline';
You implement the BindKeyboard method to provide for the actual binding of your TKeyBindingProc methods. BindKeyboard is passed an object that implements the IOTAKeyBindingServices interface, and you use this reference to invoke the AddKeyBinding method.
AddKeyBinding requires at least three parameters. The first parameter is an array of TShortcut references. A TShortcut is a word type that represents either a single keystroke, or a keystroke plus a combination of one or more of the following: CTRL, ALT, or SHIFT, as well as left, right, middle, and double mouse button clicks. Because this parameter can include an array, it is possible to bind your TKeyBindingProc to two or more keystrokes or key combinations.
The Menus unit in Delphi contains a function named Shortcut that you can use to easily create your TShortcut references. This function has the following syntax:
function Shortcut(Key: Word; Shift: TShiftState): TShortcut;
In this function, the first character is the ANSI value of the keyboard character, and the second is a set of zero, one, or more TShiftState. The following is the declaration of TShiftState, as it appears in the Classes unit:
TShiftState = set of (ssShift, ssAlt, ssCtrl,
  ssLeft, ssRight, ssMiddle, ssDouble);
The second parameter of BindKeyboard is a reference to your TKeyBindingProc method that implements the behavior you want to associate with the keystroke or key combination, and the third parameter is a pointer to a context. In the BindKeyboard implementation in the TDupLineBinding class, the method DupLine is passed as the second parameter and nil is passed in this third parameter. The following is the implementation of the BindKeyboard method that appears in the DupLine.pas unit:
procedure TDupLineBinding.BindKeyboard(
  const BindingServices: IOTAKeyBindingServices);
    [ShortCut(Ord('D'), [ssCtrl, ssShift])], DupLine, nil);
As you can see, this BindKeyboard implementation will associate the code implemented in the DupLine method with the CTRL-Shift-D keystroke combination.

Authors Note: In the original posting, ssShift was omitted from the set in the second argument of the above BindKeyboard implementation. A reader pointed this out in a reply to this blog, and I have since updated this code. Thanks Atys!

Implementing TKeyBindingProc Methods

Implementing the methods of IOTAKeyboardBindings is pretty straightforward. Implementing your TKeyBindingProc method, however, is not.
As you can see from the TKeyBindingProc method pointer type declaration shown earlier in this section, a TKeyBindingProc is passed three parameters. The first, and most important, is an object that implements the IOTAKeyContext interface. This object is your direct link to the editor, and you use its properties to control cursor position, block operations, and views. The second parameter is the TShortCut that was used to invoke your method. This is useful if you passed more than one TShortCut in the first parameter of the AddKeyBinding invocation, especially if you want the behavior to be different for different keystrokes or key combinations.
The final parameter of your TKeyBindingProc method is a TKeyBindingResult value passed by reference. You use this parameter to signal to the editor what it should do after your method exits. The following is the TKeyBindingResult declaration as it appears in the ToolsAPI unit:
TKeyBindingResult = (krUnhandled, krHandled, krNextProc);
You set the BindingResult formal parameter of your TKeyBindingProc method to krHandled if your method has successfully executed its behavior. Setting BindingResult to krHandled also has the effect of preventing any other key bindings from processing the key, as well as preventing menu items assigned to the key combination from processing it.
You set BindingResult to krUnhandled if you do not process the keystroke or key combination. If you set BindingResult to krUnhandled, the editor will permit any other key bindings assigned to the keystroke or key combination to process it, as well as any menu items associated with the key combination.
Set BindingResult to krNextProc if you have handled the key, but want to permit any other key bindings associated with the keystroke or key combination to trigger as well. Similar to setting BindingResult to krHandled, setting BindingResult to krNextProc will have the effect of preventing menu shortcuts from receiving the keystroke or key combination.
As mentioned earlier, the real trick in implementing your TKeyBindingProc method is associated with the object that implements the IOTAKeyContext interface that you receive in the Context formal parameter. Unfortunately, Embarcadero has published almost no documentation about how to do this. One of the few bits of information are the somewhat intermittent comments located in the ToolsAPI unit.
A full discussion of the properties of IOTAKeyContent is well beyond the scope of this article. That having been said, the following is the implementation of the TKeyBindingProc from the TDupLineBinding class:
procedure TDupLineBinding.Dupline(const Context: IOTAKeyContext;
  KeyCode: TShortcut; var BindingResult: TKeyBindingResult);
  EditPosition: IOTAEditPosition;
  EditBlock: IOTAEditBlock;
  CurrentRow: Integer;
  CurrentRowEnd: Integer;
  BlockSize: Integer;
  IsAutoIndent: Boolean;
  CodeLine: String;
  EditPosition := Context.EditBuffer.EditPosition;
  EditBlock := Context.EditBuffer.EditBlock;
  //Save the current edit block and edit position
    // Store original cursor row
    CurrentRow := EditPosition.Row;
    // Length of the selected block (0 means no block)
    BlockSize := EditBlock.Size;
    // Store AutoIndent property
    IsAutoIndent := Context.EditBuffer.BufferOptions.AutoIndent;
    // Turn off AutoIndent, if necessary
    if IsAutoIndent then
      Context.EditBuffer.BufferOptions.AutoIndent := False;
    // If no block is selected, or the selected block is a single line,
   // then duplicate just the current line
    if (BlockSize = 0) or (EditBlock.StartingRow = EditPosition.Row) or
      ((BlockSize <> 0) and ((EditBlock.StartingRow + 1) =(EditPosition.Row)) and
      (EditBlock.EndingColumn = 1)) then
      //Only a single line to duplicate
      //Move to end of current line
      //Get the column position
      CurrentRowEnd := EditPosition.Column;
      //Move to beginning of current line
      //Get the text of the current line, less the EOL marker
      CodeLine := EditPosition.Read(CurrentRowEnd - 1);
      //Add a line
      //Move to column 1
      EditPosition.Move(CurrentRow, 1);
      //Insert the copied line
      // More than one line selected. Get block text
      CodeLine := Editblock.Text;
      // Move to the end of the block
      EditPosition.Move(EditBlock.EndingRow, EditBlock.EndingColumn);
      //Insert block text
    // Restore AutoIndent, if necessary
    if IsAutoIndent then
      Context.EditBuffer.BufferOptions.AutoIndent := True;
    BindingResult := krHandled;
    //Move cursor to original position
    //Restore the original block (if one existed)
As you can see from this code, the IOTAKeyContext implementing object passed in the first parameter is your handle to access a variety of objects that you can use to to implement your keybinding behavior. And without a doubt, it is the EditBuffer property that is most useful.
This property refers to an object that implements the IOTAEditBuffer interface. You use this object to obtain a reference to additional interface implementing objects, including IOTABufferOptions, IOTAEditBlock, IOTAEditPosition, and IOTAEditView implementing objects. These objects are available using the BufferOptions, EditBlock, EditPosition, and TopView properties of the EditBuffer property of the Context formal parameter.
You use the IOTABufferOptions object to read information about the status of the editor, including the various settings that can be configured on the General page of the Editor Properties dialog box.
The IOTAEditBlock object permits you to control blocks of code in the editor. Operations that you can perform on blocks includes copying, saving to file, growing or shrinking the block, deleting, and so on.
You use the TOTAEditPosition object to manage the insertion point, or cursor. Operations that you can perform with this object include determining the position of the insertion point, moving it, inserting single characters, pasting a copied block, and so forth.
Finally, you use the TOTAEditView object to get information about, and to a certain extent, control, the various editor windows. For example, you can use this object to determine how many units are open, scroll individual windows, make a given window active, and get, set, and goto bookmarks.
Turning our attention back to the DupLine method, this code begins by getting references to the IOTAEditPosition and IOTAEditBlock. While this step was not an essential step, it simplifies the code in this method, reducing the need for repeated references to Context.EditBuffer.EditPosition and Context.EditBuffer.EditBlock. Next, the current state of both the edit position and edit buffer are saved.
The code now saves the current row of the cursor, the size of the selected block (it will be 0 if no block is selected), and the AutoIndent setting of the code editor.
In the next step, the AutoIndent setting is turned off, if necesary. The code now determines whether a single line of code or a block of code needs to be duplicated. If a single block is being duplicated, the length of the current line is measured, the text is copied, and then the copied text is inserted into a new line. If a block is being copied, the selected text is copied, the cursor is positioned at the end of the selected block, and the copied text is inserted.
Finally, the AutoIndent setting is restored (if necessary), the BindResult formal parameter is set to krHandled, and both the edit position and edit block is restored. Restoring the edit position moves the cursor to its original position, and restoring the edit block re-selects the selected text (if a block was selected).

Declaring and Implementing the Register Procedure

In order for your key binding to be installed successfully into the editor, you must register it from an installed designtime package using a Register procedure. The Register procedure, whose name is case sensitive, must be forward declared in the interface section of the unit that will be installed into the designtime package. Furthermore, you must add an invocation of the IOTAKeyBindingServices.AddKeyboardBinding method to the implementation of this procedure, passing an instance of your key binding class as the sole parameter. You invoke this method by dynamically binding the BorlandIDEServices reference to the IOTAKeyboardServices interface, and pass as the actual parameter an invocation of your key binding object’s constructor.
The following is how the Register procedure implementation appears in the DupLine.pas unit:
procedure Register;
  (BorlandIDEServices as IOTAKeyboardServices).

Installing the KeyBinding

The source code download includes a project for a design-time package, as well as the Dupline.pas unit. Use the following steps to install this keybinding in Delphi.
  1. Open the KeyBind project in Delphi.
  2. Using the project manager, right-click the Keybind project and select Install. The new keybinding should compile and install. (If it does not compile, ensure that the designide package is in the project requires clause, and that the project is a designtime only package.
The keybinding is now active. You should now be able to press Ctrl-Shift-D in a unit to create a duplicate of the current line or selected text.
I hope that this has inspired you to try to create your own key bindings. Note, however, if you create a key binding that uses a keystroke that is already in use by Delphi's editor, and you set BindResult to handled, you will have effectively overwritten the existing keystroke. In fact, Ctrl-Shift-D is current in use by Delphi to display the Declare Field refactoring dialog box. However, you can still access that feature by selected Refactor Declare Field from Delphi's main menu.
Or, you might consider changing the BindKeyboard implementation in this package to map DupLine to something else, such as Ctrl-D. Ctrl-D is mapped to the Source Formatting feature in Delphi 2010. This feature, which reformats your code, is something that you might prefer to have to intentionally select by right-clicking in the code editor and selecting Format Source.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Would You Like Chips * With That Q&A?

(* British for French Fries)

I don't go to McDonald's often. But last Wednesday, I did go to McDonald's, though it was for the technology, not for the food.

With the exception of last Wednesday, I'm not exactly sure when I last visited a McDonald's. I think it might have been almost four years ago, in Prague, and that was to get a cup of coffee (though I have a vague memory of my wife, Loy, having some kind of ice cream dish). So, I stand by my original assertion, that I do not go to McDonald's that often.

Many of my European friends find this hard to believe. Certainly, as an American, and one who is on the road a lot (most would say too much), certainly I must succumb to the siren song of the fast and easy food available at these locations. Actually, it's largely because I travel so much that I avoid fast food restaurants in general, if not in principle.

While I am not a skinny person, it would be disingenuous to characterized me as being overweight. And I work at that. In fact, when I am on the road, I rarely eat dinner at restaurants of any kind. Instead, I find something at a local supermarket and fix it up in my hotel room. Since I normally have a room with a microwave oven and refrigerator, at least in US hotels, there is a lot I can do. Making soup, building sandwiches, re-heating prepared meals, or even preparing raw vegetables. It's amazing, really, what you can do.

Even when I am not on the road, I rarely eat out. The fact is, I love to cook. To me, eating at a restaurant when I could be cooking at home would be my loss. I would much rather spent my money on ingredients, and maybe a nice bottle of wine, than to give it to someone else to prepare my food.

In fact, I am shocked each time I do eat out. My goodness, it's expensive (not that this is an issue). But when I think of what I could have done with that 30 bucks (or 50 bucks) I feel a loss. That same money could have bought some beautiful New Zealand green mussels, or Dungeness crab, or Maine lobster (I love seafood), or a great steak, or a little of each!

But my visit to McDonald's had nothing to do with food. It was for the the WIFI.

Last Wednesday I was in London, England, as part of the Delphi Developer Days 2010 tour that I was delivering with my friend and colleague, Marco Cantù. We had just finished the first day of our presentations, and I was preparing to go online for a live broadcast of my question and answer (Q&A) session for a web-based presentation I was doing for Embarcadero, called DataRage 2.

There was a problem, however. Well, two problems, really. The first problem was that the wireless Internet connection at our hotel had gone down. It had been up for most of the day, but now, just as I was supposed to go online, it was down.

I knew that this might be a problem. At this hotel the Internet goes down at least once a day. In most cases, we simply talk to the front desk and they reboot the router. There, problem solved.

But this is where the second problem comes in. And his name is Trevor. You see, Trevor works a shift at the front desk, and apparently he is uncomfortable with technology. Basically, if the Internet goes down when Trevor is on duty, you might as well wait until his replacement comes in, and they will have it back up in minutes.

Asking Trevor to reboot the router is like asking your plumber for health tips. It's a pointless exercise.

When I reported to Trevor that the hotel had lost its Internet connection, a hint of panic crosses his face. Next he stutters that there is nothing that he can do. When I comment that the other managers simply reboot the router, he starts flipping the power switches on and off on two power strips connected to who knows what, over and over, until he reports that, "There, it's gone. I'm sorry, it won't turn on again."

It's gone? Trevor, what have you done? I offer to come behind the counter and take a look. After all, I am a computer guy. You know, one of those people who work with these things all the time.

But Trevor would have none of this. His stuttering is getting worse. He's not supposed to touch it, he informs me. No one is supposed to touch it. It's not the hotel's equipment. No, I cannot come behind the counter. He's becoming more agitated. "We'll just have to wait for someone to come in and fix it," he informs me.

While this was going on, my presentation was already being broadcast. I submitted a 30- minute recording some weeks before, and this is played prior to my live question and answer period. However, it is now 5:22 pm (London time), and there are about 10 minutes left before I am supposed to speak.

I grab my backpack, which contains my computer, and start to head out the door. I ask Marco, who has a mobile phone, to send a message to DataRage coordinator Christine Ellis at Embarcadero and let her know that I am going to try to find an Internet café from which I can talk.

As I head towards the high street, where I had previously seen several Internet cafés, it occurs to me that I left my USB headphones, the ones with over-the-ear earphones and a noise canceling microphone, back in the hotel. But it's too late to go back. I need to get to an Internet connection as soon as possible.

A couple of minutes later I turn the corner onto the high street, and immediately find an Internet café. Actually, it was more of an all-in-one shop, international phone calls, prepaid phone cards, and several Internet-connected computers lined up along one wall. Success!

"Do you have wireless?" I ask. "No" was the simple reply. Drat! I need wireless.

My laptop is already set up with Microsoft Live Meeting, which takes several minutes to install on an existing machine. And, it's not clear that these machines even have microphones, or that I would be permitted to install Live Meeting. I needed another option.

"Is there an Internet café nearby that provides wireless access?" I ask. "Well," the clerk informs me, "if all you need is wireless access, go to the McDonald's across the street. It's free there."

I quickly thank him and leave. The McDonald's across the street was not actually across the street, but I could see it from here. And, I needed to go down to a crosswalk, as this was a very busy street.

As I entered the McDonald's, I did feel a tinge of guilt. I am not a regular customer, and I don't intend to buy anything this time, either. So, I should be as inconspicuous as possible. But as I sat down at a single table in a far corner, away from most of the rest of the patrons, I realize that this is one noisy place.

To begin with, the place is heaving (this is a particularly British phrase). It's now just after 5:30pm, and my Q&A should be starting. But so is dinner service, and the place is filled with families with young children, each one speaking at the top of their voices. On top of this was the music, a pulsing electronic pop that blared from speakers in the ceiling. The music may have been louder than the children. But the cacophony of it all was too much. There is no way that I could talk from here.

I began to put my computer back into my bag when I realize that it was going to be McDonald's or nowhere. The nearest Internet café that I could recall was at least two blocks away. I was going to have to make do. If nothing else, maybe I could type my answers to any questions asked.

So, I restart my computer, and connect to the McDonald's Internet (this took several minutes, as I had to register with their provider first). However, I was soon connected and Live Meeting was loading. During this setup time I once again realized that I didn't have my USB headphones. How am I going to hear the questions?

I scrounge around in my bag and find an extra pair of cheap earphones that I got on my flight to London. Actually, these were ear buds, and poor ones at that. But, they'd have to do.

Just about the time I have the ear buds plugged in, and Live Meeting is finally coming on line, I hear the rich voice of Embarcadero Developer Relations Evangelist David Intersimone (affectionately known as "David I") answering a question about my presentation. Suddenly, he stops and says "It sounds like Cary has come online from an Internet café. Cary, are you there?"

Oh, I'm here all right. Leaning over my laptop, speaking directly into the built-in microphone of my laptop's lid, with my fingers in my ears, trying to push the ear buds in further so that I could hear David while trying to block as much of the external racket as possible. "Yes, David, I'm here. Coming to you from a McDonald's."

"I can hear that. Sounds like you have a big audience there." But the good news was that I could hear the questions, and remarkably, they could hear my answers. And that's the way it was for the next 20 minutes. Me leaning over my laptop with the forefinger of each hand stuck in each ear.

I must have been quite a sight. But certainly not enough to discourage the family of five, an exhausted mother and her four children, all yelling at each other at the top of their lungs, from sitting down next to me half way through my session. Gee, I would have thought that a lunatic talking to his computer with his fingers in his ears would be something that a nurturing mother would want to avoid. But what do I know? This is London, after all, and they have their fare share of lunatics, and most of them are harmless.

Meanwhile, back at the conference hotel, Marco and Loy are back online and listening in (and laughing pretty hard, I'm later told). Apparently someone has rescued Trevor.

Considering the circumstances, it all went quite well. And at the conclusion of the Q&A, David I noted that we had accomplished a first. Other presenters had handled their Q&As live from the Embarcadero studios, some from their own offices, others from home, but never from a McDonald's. And, despite the constant chatter of children in the background (Marco and Loy said it sounded like I was presenting from a daycare center), we managed to answer all of the questions asked.

So, I'll have to admit that my first visit to McDonald's in years was an overall satisfying experience. Maybe I'll be back another day, when there is less pressing business. After all, I hear they pour a world-class cup of coffee these days.

Copyright (c) 2010 Cary Jensen. All Rights Reserved